馬來西亞 亞羅士打 仁愛專科醫藥中心 泌尿外科
The diagnosis and management of urolithiasis in Northern Malaysia
Division of Urology, Putra Medical Centre, Alor Setar, Malaysia
This study is to introduce the presently clinical practice in regarding diagnosis tool and management of the urolithiasis problems in northern Malaysia single hospital urology department.
Materials and Methods:
Total 514 cases of urolithiasis of ureter were enrolled in this study during June, 2011 to February 2015. Presenting S/S including: renal colic, hematuria, dysuria, etc. Average patient’s age were 48.59 years old (15 years old to 88 years old). Male to female ratio were 379: 135. Mostly Renal Ultrasound and CT scan without enhancement and few KUB were used for diagnosis. Concering lab tests and urine tests were done. All patient received ureteroscopic stone extraction by lithoclast with or without JJ stenting (Fr 6 X 26/24 cm JJ stent) under spinal anesthsia or general anesthesia.
All the imaging study revealed obstuctive hydronephrosis while obstructive uropathy was noted in 101 cases. Lab data revealed hyperuricemia in 211 cases. Urine test revealed hematuria in 244 cases. Left side ureter stone was noted in 253 cases while right side stone were 298 cases whereas bilateral side stones were 20 cases. 6 cases were ureteropelvic junction stones whereas 10 cases had concomitantly bladder stones (a 80 years old male received cystolithotomy for huge bladder stone 4 cm X 3 cm and right URSM + JJ stent concomitantly) and 1 had penile urethral stone whom received cystoscopy lithotripsy simutaneously. 2 cases had incidentally noted of papillary bladder TCC and bladder papilloma whom received biopsy with close surveillance. Average hospitalization was 1-2 days with minimal complication. Foley was keep for 1 day. Average JJ stent was left for 1-2 weeks whereas 1 month for renal pelvic stone .
Idiopathic uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to be increasing in prevalence as in our urolithiasis cases. Ultrasound is mostly used for the first line diagnostic tool in detecting nephrolithiasis or obstructive hydronephrosis. While CT scan without enhancement is more sensitive to detect ureter stone especially uric acid stone (radiolucent) without renal toxicity consequences. Further, CT scan is cheap (about NT 3500), fast and convenient. While it has long been known that low urine pH is associated with uric acid stones, alkalinization treatment will provide benefit in mostly cases.