1國軍臺中總醫院 外科部 泌尿科；2中臺科技大學 ; 3國防醫學院 ; 4國立台灣大學農業化學所 ; 5國立中興大學
Activation of the sonic hedgehog and vascular endothelial growth factor with co-localization in varicocele veins
Jane-Dar Lee1,2,3, Wen-Kai Yang3,4
1Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Taichung Armed Forces General Hospital, Taiwan , R.O.C.
2Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology; Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
3National Defense Medical Center, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.
4 Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, Republic of China;
5 Department of Life Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 40227, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Varicocele is characterized by dilatation and tortuosity of the internal spermatic vein (ISV). The cross section of this diseased vein showed thickened muscle layer under microscopy. Sonic hedgehog (SHH) plays an important role in angiogenesis and vascular remodeling under hypoxic stress. We studied the relationship and distribution of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and SHH in the ISV of patients with varicocele.
Materials and Methods:
The study specimens were 1 cm of internal spermatic vein (ISV) obtained from 20 patients during left varicocele repair. The control samples of 1 cm ISV were obtained from 8 male patients who underwent left inguinal herniorrhaphy. We analyzed for VEGF and SHH protein expression by immunoblotting, immunohistochemical (IHC) staining, double immunofluorescent staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The data were analyzed using the Student’s t test.
Higher expression of VEGF and SHH proteins in varicocele veins than in the control group (P<.05) which located over muscle layers and endothelium were demonstrated by IHC staining. Both proteins co-localizated predominantly in endothelium of diseased veins under confocal laser scanning microscopy.
This is the first reporting the SHH expression in varicocele veins of humans. Our findings revealed the higher expression of SHH and VEGF in muscle layer and endothelium of varicocele veins than in control group. Both proteins co-localized predominantly in the endothelium of these diseased veins.