Evaluation of the protective role of active compound Salidroside from Rhodiola rosea against bladder cancer
Chia-Lung Tsai1, Victor C. Lin1,2, Chung-Hsien Chen1,2, Richard Chen-Yu Wu1,2,
Yu-Chi Chen1,2, Chun-Hsien Wu1,2, Yu-Lin Yang3,
Department of Urology, E-Da Hospital1; I-Shou University2; Chung Hwa University of Medical3
Purpose: Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor involving the urinary system and the morbidity is increasing year by year. Treatment for bladder cancer depends on early diagnosis and surgical resection. However, the effective treatment for bladder cancer is still poor. Salidroside is the main compound from Rhodiola rosea, a widely used Chinese herb, and has been reported to possess anti-tumor effect. However, the therapeutic effect of Salidroside in bladder cancer remains unclear.
Materials and Methods: Bladder cancer cells (T24 cells) were treated with Salidroside (12.5, 25, and 50μg/ml) for 24 h followed by the serial biological examination.
Results: Salidroside reduced not only the viability but also cell proliferation of bladder cancer cells by trypan blue exclusion assay and MTT assay. Salidroside induced cytotoxicity of bladder cancer cells according to LDH assay. However, Salidroside does not affects the BMP-2 secretion in T24 cells. In addition, the TGF-β pathway is involved in urinary bladder cancer progression. Salidroside significantly reduced the expression of TGF-β1 secretion in T24 cells. Salidroside significantly decreased TGF-β1 signaling, in addition to inducing a marked increase in the down-regulation of Smad7. Moreover, Salidroside decreased migration in bladder cancer cells. More importantly, Salidroside decrease EMT (Epithelial-mesenchymal transition), since it decreases the expression of α-SMA and increase expression of E-cadherin.
Conclusion: To sum up, Salidroside may act as a novel anti-cancer agent by down-regulating TGF-β1 signaling and modulating EMT.